This book is the proceedings of the conference Faecal Indicators: problem or solution? Has technical progress reduced the need for faecal indicators? held on 6th to 8th June 2011 at Edinburgh Conference Centre, Heriot Watt University, UK. It addresses existing and emerging issues in environmental microbiology which in turn offer exciting new challenges in microbiology, public health and environmental science. The ultimate aim being to assist the monitoring and modelling of environmental systems to protect human health, animal welfare and environmental quality. With contributions from leading scientists and experts in academia and industry, it offers a truly international perspective on both current research and our ability to respond with useful and sustainable solutions to many of the emerging challenges of today’s modern communities. The conference featured two combative, provocative and engaging debates examining the moral issues behind the statements “What is a coliform and are coliforms relevant to public health?” and “Do regulations help or hinder the innovation in testing methods?”. The reports of these questions are captured in the book. The book appeals across the board from those working in universities and research institutes to local governments, the water and food industries, and health professionals.